Regional Geology
          The topography of the project area is characterized by valley bottoms located at 900 metres above sea level and hills situated at 1,100 metres above sea level, between which lie gentle rolling slopes. This topography has formed as a result of weathering and erosion of the plateau, which consists of metamorphic rocks overlain by volcanic rocks and lacustrine limestones exhibiting lateral transitions with each other. 
          Topographically, higher sectors are generally represented by volcanic rock formations. The region includes peneplains developed on a metamorphic foundation in the west, plateaus formed of horizontal Neocene-aged sedimentary rocks in the east, and wide volcanic cones in between. Volcanic plateaus are located among the Eskisaray, Çardak and Karabol villages in the northeast, and around Akçaköy, Gümüşkol, Kışlaköy, Gedikler, Ahmetler and Kolankaya villages in middle sectors (Yazıcıgil et al, 2000). 
          The Kışladağ volcanic complex/melange, which has been preserved quite well, appears as the most significant structure in local morphology of the project area. This structure consists of two volcanic cones situated approximately in a NE-SW direction. The Beydağı volcanic cone is located in the southwest and the Kışla volcanic cone in the northeast. This volcanic complex/melange measures approximately 10 x 9 kilometres. Pyroclastic outflows developed on the sides of the volcanic cone are interlaced with Neocene-aged lacustrine limestones and shales.  

Geological setting 
          Kişladağ is a porphyry gold deposit that formed beneath a coeval Miocene volcanic complex in Western Anatolia, Turkey. At least four latite intrusive phases are recognised in the deposit but these are extensively altered. Alteration consists of a potassic core with K-feldspar, biotite, quartz and locally magnetite, outwardly overprinted by illite, kaolinite, quartz, and tourmaline. Remnants of a quartz-alunite lithocap are found near surface.
          The mineralized intrusions at Kisladag are enclosed within volcanic and volcaniclastic strata that overlie basement schist and gneiss of the Menderes Massif Core Complex. These strata dip outward from the deposit core, and display rapid facies changes from massive lavas and coarse poorly stratified units proximal to the porphyry centre, to finer well-stratified volcaniclastic strata that inter-finger with lacustrine sedimentary rocks in surrounding sedimentary basins. There has been relatively little structural modification to the deposit and surrounding Tertiary rocks. Lithologic contacts are primarily intrusive or depositional, with no documented major fault offsets.
          The deposit and adjacent rocks do, however, contain a high density of joints and low-displacement brittle fractures. Most of these are only a few metres to a few tens of metres in length, and have negligible displacement. 

          Gold mineralization at Kisladag occurs within zones of sulphide and quartz stockworks, and disseminated to fracture controlled sulphides. Pyrite is the dominant sulphide mineral, averaging around 3% in the primary mineralized zone, with trace amounts of molybdenum, zinc, lead, and copper. Highest gold grades occur, in multiphase quartz sulphide stockworks and zones of mottled to pervasive silicification. Oxidation extends to a depth of 30 to 80 metres on the southern side of the deposit, and 20 to 50 metres on the northern side of the deposit. Limonite and geothite are the most abundant oxide minerals. There is no supergene enrichment within the oxidized zone.



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